Sometime around 3,800 million years ago, life began to evolve. The rest four are called Jovian or Gas Giant planets. Then suddenly with a bang, the Universe began to expand at an incredible rate and matter, energy, space and time came into being. As per the human development report 2011, the per Capita Gross National Income in India stood at Rs.3,468 for the year 2011. Gaseous Hypothesis of Kant: . Alternatively, the first four are called Terrestrial, meaning earth-like as they are made up of rock and metals, and have relatively high densities. Huge clusters of galaxies comprise the universe. Edwin Hubble, in 1920, provided evidence that the universe is expanding. The rainwater falling onto the surface got collected in the depressions to give rise to oceans. Till recently (August 2006), Pluto was also considered a planet. This document is highly rated by UPSC … Hydrogen and Helium formed sometime later. The binary numeral system – where each position is written as a 0 or 1 – forms the foundation of all modern computing systems. (ii) In the next stage, the gas cloud starts getting condensed and the matter around the core develops into smallrounded objects. Particles of gases were compressed together, giving off heat. As it grew, some energy was converted into matter. Russell, an American astronomer, propounded his Binary Star Hypothesis in the year 1937 to remove the shortcomings of tidal hypothesis of sir James Jeans. Due to gravitational pull a gaseous tide was raised on the surface of the sun. The Story of Earth; How did Earth Evolve? As a result the material insidestarted getting separated depending on their densities. With little to no oxygen, there was not a protective ozone layer around the Earth like we have now. Sun and planets coalesced out of a vast cloud of gas and dust. Discuss the different theories like the early theory (nuclear hypothesis by Kant), binary theory, revised nebular hypothesis, big bang theory. These small-rounded objects by the process of cohesion develop into what is called planetesimals. There was particularly rapid expansion within fractions of a second after the bang. Origin of the Earth: A large number of hypotheses were put forth by different philosophers and scientists regarding the origin of the earth. He proposed his ‘Inter- stellar –dust’ hypothesis in 1943. UPSC Civil Services Examination UPSC Notes [GS-I] Topic: Earth - Origin & Evolution [Geography Notes for UPSC] The origin and evolution of the earth Early Theories Nebular Hypothesis Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher gave this theory. H.N. Big Bang Theory/ Expanding Universe Hypothesis: It was given by Edwin Hubble. The microscopic structures closely related to the present form of blue algae have been found in geological formations much older than some 3,000 million years. Nebular Hypothesis: • Proposed by German philosopher Immanuel Kant and revised by Laplace in 1796. Watch Video Lecture on YouTube: 7 Theories of Origin of Earth - Part - 2. Mathematician Laplace revised it in 1796. During the cooling of the earth, gases and water vapour were released from the interior solid earth. The following are considered to be the stages in the development of planets : (i) The stars are localised lumps of gas within a nebula. One of the earlier and popular arguments was by German philosopher Immanuel Kant. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This assemblage was such that they could duplicate themselves converting It is known as Nebular Hypothesis. Earth is part of the solar system. From the crust to the core, the density of the material increases. The earth was mostly in a volatile state during its primordial stage. 1. 7 Theories of Origin of Earth - Part - 2 . • Sun was considered young and slowly rotating. Hydrogen and helium were the gases which intially formed the earth's atmosphere. The expansion continues even to the present day. In 1796, a mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace reexamined it. The universe expanded and hence, the temperature came down. Life was confined to the oceans for a long time. This portion of blasted material then continued to orbit the earth and eventually formed into the present moon about 4.44 billion years ago. The gravitational force within the lumps leads to the formation of a core to the gas cloud and a huge rotating disc of gas and dust develops around the gas core. Modern scientists refer to the origin of life as a kind of chemical reaction, which first generated complex organic molecules and assembled them. It suggests that about 1370 crore (13.7 billion) years ago, all matter and energy in the universe was concentrated into an area smaller than an atom. Later in 1900, Chamberlain and Moulton considered that a wandering star approached the sun. These clumps continue to grow into even denser gaseous bodies, giving rise to formation of stars. 17 The “Big Six” Elements of Early Earth. However, the present scientists do not accept either of the explanations. There are dozens of hypotheses proposed regarding the origin of the earth by different philosophers. The chemistry of meteorites and Sun provide constraints on the composition of the bulk of the Earth. These initial density differences gave rise to differences in gravitational forces and it caused the matter to get drawn together. Planetesimals are a large number of smaller bodies. During the formation of the moon, due to the giant impact, the earth was further heated up. The Human Origin Project. Early earth and theories on the origins magic isotope of the origin q8 fill in the blank most origin of ning of life biology for everybody ppt theories on the origin of Origin Of Earth Iasmania Civil Services PreparationWhat Are Some Theories That Explain The Origin Of Earth QuoraExperiments Call Origin Of Earth S Iron… Read More » Bring out the distinctions between the continental drift theory and the plate tectonics theory. It states that at some moment all of space was contained in a single point of very high-density and high-temperature state from which the universe has been expanding in all directions ever since. Lithosphere, Atmosphere, and Hydrosphere of the Earth Lithosphere: The firm outer part of the earth, comprising of the crust and upper mantle. As the star came nearer, the tide increased in size. Russell opined that there were two stars near the primitive sun in the universe. (2000) Present a critical analysis of the theory of Isostacy. The terrestrial model is the most likely explanation on the formation of the Earth’s crust. A large number of hypotheses were put forth by different philosophers and scientists regarding the origin of the earth. A large number of hypotheses were put forth by different philosophers and scientists regarding the origin of the earth. Sun and planets coalesced out of a vast cloud of gas and dust. As the earth cooled, the water vapour released started getting condensed. Within first three minutes from the Big Bang event, the first atom began to form. Nebula – It is a primordial (primitive) amorphous (without shape) mass of cloud of gas and dust. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the birth of the universe. • The early atmosphere largely contained water vapour, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia and very little of free oxygen. This document is highly rated by UPSC … They considered that the sun was surrounded by solar nebula containing mostly the hydrogen and helium along with what may be termed as dust. Nebular Hypothesis: • Proposed by German philosopher Immanuel Kant and revised by Laplace in 1796. Similarly, the distance between the galaxies is also found to be increasing and thereby, the universe is considered to be expanding. Class 11 – Chapter 2 – Origin and Evolution of Earth. The hypothesis considered that the planets were formed out of a cloud of material associated with a youthful sun, which was slowly rotating. It is also called expanding universe hypothesis. Davis postulated his concept of the origin of coral reefs in 1914-18 and revived the subsidence theory as pos­tulated by Darwin and others. (iii) In the final stage, these large number of small planetesimals accrete to form a fewer large bodies in the form of planets. Buffon was the first scientist to give a scientific explanation regarding the origin of the earth and solar system in 1754. According to nebular theory, an early form of planet Earth collided with an object, causing debris to fly into space, which then reformed within the Earth's gravitational field to form the moon. The early atmosphere, with hydrogen and helium, is supposed to have been stripped off as a result of the solar winds. What should you understand about the interior of the earth? The carbon dioxide in the atmosphere got dissolved in rainwater and the temperature further decreased causing more condensation and more rains. • Sun was considered young and slowly rotating. The process through which the gases were outpoured from the interior is called degassing. Understanding the basic structure of earth is very important to learn higher concepts well. Assumptions 1. Jan 10, 2021 - NCERT Textbook Chapter 2 - The Earth, Class 11, Geography UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. Ac… Jovian means jupiter-like. Geomorphology in Physical Geography, Geomorphology in Physical Geography upsc, Geomorphology in Physical Geography only ias exam,Factors controlling landform development, Endogenetic and exogenetic forces, ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH'S CRUST,FUNDAMENTALS OF GEOMAGNETISM,PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF THE EARTH'S INTERIOR,GEOSYNCLINES THEORY BY KOBER,CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY… And this course by Bhumika deals with all the topics which are related to it. This assemblage was such that they could duplicate themselves converting The last phase in the evolution of the earth relates to the origin and evolution of life. Suggested Citation : "The Origin of the Universe, Earth, and Life." According to this hypothesis, the planets were moulded out of a cloud of material associated with a young Sun, which was rotating slowly. Due to gradual increase in density the temperature inside has increased. Galaxies spread over vast distances that are measured in thousands of light-years. He presented several physiographic evidences in support of subsidence theory and to explain hither to unsolved several problems related to the formation of coral reefs. In the second stage, the hot interior of the earth contributed to the evolution of the atmosphere. The nebula from which our Solar system is supposed to have been formed, started its collapse and core formation some time 5-5.6 billion years ago and the planets were formed about 4.6 billion years ago. It is also called expanding universe hypothesis. Your email address will not be published. It is undoubtedly clear that initially the earth or even the atmosphere of the earth was not conducive for the development of life. UPSC IAS Prelims: Geography:The Origin and Evolution of the Earth. Origin of Earth By- S M Zaki Ahmad 2. This happened not only in case of the earth, but also in all the terrestrial planets, which were supposed to have lost their primordial atmosphere through the impact of solar winds. According to Buffon, origin of the solar system is the result of an accident between the Sun and a … The famous American geomorphologist W.M. In 1838, Sir George Darwin suggested that initially, the earth and the moon formed a single rapidly rotating body. The Big Bang Theory is the most accepted theory regarding the origin of the planet earth and the existence of different life forms on it. Planets were believed to be formed out of a cloud like material associated with Sun. Revised Nebular Hypothesis The early atmosphere largely contained water vapour, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia and very little of free oxygen. Gaseous tide detached when star move away. Universe formation process; Star formation process; Planets formation process; Development of Lithosphere; Development of atmosphere and Hydrosphere; Origin of life Although it is the most studied planet, it cannot be completely understood in isolation. This matter was produced when a passing star almost collided with the sun. Due to gravitational pull a gaseous tide was raised on the surface of the sun. Origin of Earth. Mathematician Laplace revised it in 1796. These arguments are called binary theories. The Origin Of The Earth According To Laplace: Based on aforesaid assumptions Laplace maintained that there was a hot and rotating huge gaseous Nebula in the space.There was gradual loss of heat from the outer surface of the Nebula through radiation due … Origin and Evolution of Earth Research Questions for a Changing Planet Questions about the origins and nature of Earth have long preoccupied human thought and the scientific endeavor. Oceans began to have the contribution of oxygen through the process of photosynthesis. As the star came nearer, the tide increased in size. Now, if you start inflating the balloon, the points marked on the balloon will appear to be moving away from each other as the balloon expands. It is an alternative to the Big Bang model of the evolution of the universe. This allowed heavier materials (like iron) to sink towards the centre of the earth and the lighter ones to move towards the surface. Thereafter, the expansion has slowed down. Prehistory & the Story of Earth; DNA Genetics & Evolution; Archaeological Sites; Ancient Civilizations; Physics & the Universe; The Human Brain & Consciousness . It blasted a large part of the earth into space. Sir James Jeans and later Sir Harold Jeffrey supported this argument. Geomagnetism, elements of earth's magnetism, Rock and mineral magnetism, Elastic waves, types Phase equilibrium in igneous systems : Binary and ternary systems. This started the evolution of the present atmosphere. It states that at some moment all of space was contained in a single point of very high-density and high-temperature state from which the universe has been expanding in all directions ever since. The Story of Earth; The Evolution and Complete Timeline of Life on Earth. Origin of Earth By- S M Zaki Ahmad 2. The gaseous hypothesis of Kant was based on the sound principles of Newton’s law of gravitationand rotatory motion. At a later date, the arguments considered of a companion to the sun to have been coexisting. (iii) Within 300,000 years from the Big Bang, temperature dropped to 4,500 K (Kelvin) and gave rise to atomic matter. The difference between terrestrial and jovian planets can be attributed to the following conditions: (i) The terrestrial planets were formed in the close vicinity of the parent star where it was too warm for gases to condense to solid particles. Which of the following are correctly matched? Origin of earth or theories of the evolution of the universe are below: Early theories: Nebular Hypothesis; Binary Theory or Planetesimal Hypothesis; Modern Theory: Big bang theory. These arguments are called binary theories. Solid Earth Geophysics: Introduction to Geophysics and its branches. It was proposed by Forrest R. Moulton and Thomas C. Chamberlin about 1900. What should you understand about the interior of the earth? In 1950, Otto Schmidt in Russia and Carl Weizascar in Germany somewhat revised the ‘nebular hypothesis’, though differing in details. (ii) At the Big Bang the “tiny ball” exploded violently. The early atmosphere, with hydrogen and helium, is supposed to have been stripped off as a result of the solar winds. The moon is the only natural satellite of the earth. During the cooling of the earth, gases and water vapour were released from the interior solid earth which started the evolution of the present atmosphere. Geomorphology in Physical Geography, Geomorphology in Physical Geography upsc, Geomorphology in Physical Geography only ias exam,Factors controlling landform development, Endogenetic and exogenetic forces, ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH'S CRUST,FUNDAMENTALS OF GEOMAGNETISM,PHYSICAL CONDITIONS OF THE EARTH'S INTERIOR,GEOSYNCLINES THEORY BY KOBER,CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY… Nova Hypothesis: The sun had another companion star which was much bigger than the sun, and the two together constituted a binary system. This test is Rated positive by 86% students preparing for UPSC.This MCQ test is related to UPSC syllabus, prepared by UPSC teachers. Early Theories. Origin of earth 1. Our solar system consists of the sun (the star), 8 planets, 63 moons, millions of smaller bodies like asteroids and comets and huge quantity of dust-grains and gases. Do you know that the planet earth initially was a barren, rocky and hot object with a thin atmosphere of hydrogen and helium. Eventually, oceans were saturated with oxygen, and 2,000 million years ago, oxygen began to flood the atmosphere. In this article (geography section), we discuss the interior of the earth. Eventually, growing nebula develops localised clumps of gas. Origin and Evolution of Earth Q1. (i) In the beginning, all matter forming the universe existed in one place in the form of a “tiny ball” (singular atom) with an unimaginably small volume, infinite temperature and infinite density. Also, the origin of many phenomena like earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami etc are linked with the structure of earth's interior. Mathematician ; Laplace revised it in 1796. The diameters of individual galaxies range from 80,000-150,000 light years. A large number of hypothesis were put forth by different philosophers and scientists regarding the origin of the earth. Binary theories. Nebula (Slowly rotating cloud of gas) and the matter was comprised of very cold, solid, and motionless particles. Hence, there must have been some events– processes, which may have caused this change from rocky, barren and hot earth to a beautiful planet with ample amount of water and conducive atmosphere favouring the existence of life. It is known as Nebular Hypothesis. Earth was hot glowing ball of white hot gases. 3. Mathematician Laplace revised it in 1796. One of the earlier and popular arguments was by German philosopher Immanuel Kant. (2001) Russel . Scientists believe that though the space between the galaxies is increasing, observations do not support the expansion of galaxies. This led to a huge expansion. In this article (geography section), we discuss the interior of the earth. As a result, a cigar-shaped extension of material was separated from the solar surface. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, gave this theory. The universe is very old – almost 13 billion years old. Planets were believed to be formed out of a cloud like material associated with Sun. A galaxy starts to form by accumulation of hydrogen gas in the form of a very large cloud called nebula. Starting from the surface to the central parts, we have layers like the crust, mantle, outer core and inner core. THEORY ON EVOLUTION. (2001) The formation of stars is believed to have taken place some 5-6 billion years ago. However, you will find that besides the increase in the distances between the points on the balloon, the points themselves are expanding. detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus, Life Cycle of River YouTube Lecture Handouts, Mountain Building Classification YouTube Lecture Handouts, Mountain Building Theories- YouTube Lecture Handouts: Part 1 to 2, Origin of Earth 3 Theories YouTube Lecture Handouts, Slope Development YouTube Lecture Handouts, Examrace Geography Series (Postal Course), Origin of Earth Next Theories YouTube Lecture Handouts. (2000) Present a critical analysis of the theory of Isostacy. The great issue facing the binary theory today is, well, the absence of an obvious candidate for the part. In the beginning the ‘Companion Star’ was revolving around the primitive sun. There are many views on how life originated on earth. 4.6 billion years ago. The theory states that the planets were formed by the accumulation of extremely small bits of matter planetesimals that revolved around the sun. Origin of the Earth: A large number of hypotheses were put forth by different philosophers and scientists regarding the origin of the earth. You can experiment and find what does the expanding universe mean. Oparin-Haldane theory is also called chemical theory or naturalistic theory. There were many scientists who studied the fossils and performed experiments to postulate their versions of the theory … Larger bodies start forming by collision, and gravitational attraction causes the material to stick together. The distribution of matter and energy was not even in the early universe. This is not in accordance with the fact. (1999) With reference to the theory of Plate tectonics, explain the origin and growth of the Young Fold Mountain systems of the World. The Binary Star Hypothesis regarding the origin of the Earth The Binary Star Hypothesis regarding the origin of the earth was propounded by H.N. Image of Otto Schmidt's Inter-Stellar Dust Cloud Hypothesis. Volcanic outgassing probably created the primordial atmosphere and then the ocean, but the early atmosphere contained almost n Discuss the different theories like the early theory (nuclear hypothesis by Kant), binary theory, revised nebular hypothesis, big bang theory. Theory of binaries. Therefore, this theory is also unlikely as well. Class 11 – Chapter 2 – Origin and Evolution of Earth. The study of landforms, their processes, form, and sediments at the surface of the Earth (and sometimes on other planets) is known as Geomorphology. Our Solar system consists of eight planets. The study of landforms, their processes, form, and sediments at the surface of the Earth (and sometimes on other planets) is known as Geomorphology. The present composition of earth’s atmosphere is chiefly contributed by nitrogen and oxygen. The study covers looking at landscapes to work out how the earth surface processes, such as air, water and ice, can mould the landscape. Bring out the distinctions between the continental drift theory and the plate tectonics theory. Earth was hot glowing ball of white hot gases. It is through the process of differentiation that the earth forming material got separated into different layers. inanimate matter into living substance. A. I. Oparin (1894-1980) was a Russian Scientist. From the outermost end of the atmosphere to the centre of the earth, the material that exists is not uniform. So, the balloon example is only partially correct. Jan 10, 2021 - NCERT Textbook Chapter 2 - The Earth, Class 11, Geography UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. The Big Bang Theory considers the following stages in the development of the universe. The early atmosphere of the Earth was what we would now consider a quite hostile environment. Part 1 of 3 – Theories on Origin of the Earth. Understanding the basic structure of earth is very important to learn higher concepts well. Like the origin of the earth, there have been attempts to explain how the moon was formed. The study covers looking at landscapes to work out how the earth surface processes, such as air, water and ice, can mould the landscape. According to Nebular Hypothesis, the planets were formed out of a cloud of material associated with a youthful sun. The Human Origin Project. Earth is part of the solar system. Although it is the most studied planet, it cannot be completely understood in isolation. One of the earlier and popular arguments was by; German philosopher Immanuel Kant. January 08 . Origin of Earth. Take a balloon and mark some points on it to represent the galaxies. The universe big bang dark upsc geography 2019 upsc prelims 2020 cse ias check the universe big bang dark geography optional upsc Fundamentals Of Earth Part 1 GeographyOrigin Of Earth Iasmania Civil Services PreparationFundamentals Of Earth Part 1 GeographyOrigin And Evolution Of Life On Earth Pmf IasLesson 1 Early Theories Origin And Structure Of The… Read More » The friction and collision of particles led to formation of a disk-shaped cloud and the planets were formed through the process of accretion. During the cooling of the earth, gases and water vapour were released from the interior solid earth. A galaxy contains a large number of stars. Part 1 of 3 – Theories on Origin of the Earth. 7 Theories of Origin of Earth – Part – 2 YouTube Lecture Handouts. This means the scorching ultraviolet rays from the Sun could easily reach the surface of the Earth. Origin of earth 1. This course gives a clear insight on Fundamentals of Geography. (iii) Binary star concept or trihybrid concept (involving more than two heavenly bodies). A classic example of a binary opposition is the presence-absence dichotomy. Supernaturally created primordial hard matter was scattered in the universe. However, in a meeting of the International Astronomical Union, a decision was taken that Pluto like other celestial objects (2003 UB313)discovered in recent past may be called ‘dwarf planet’. Particles began to collide against each other under their mutual gravitational attractions. The solar winds were not all that intense to cause similar removal of gases from the Jovian planets. ... Hypothesis: The sun had another companion star which was much bigger than the sun, and the two together constituted a binary system. However, scientists in later period took up the problems of origin of universe rather than that of just the earth or the planets. Huge clusters of galaxies comprise the universe. Gravity and magnetic fields of earth. It is undoubtedly clear that initially the earth or even the atmosphere of the earth was not conducive for the development of life. A body of the size of one to three times that of mars collided into the earth sometime shortly after the earth was formed. We shall discuss in detail the properties of each of this layer in the next chapter. The Big Bang theory attempts to explain to us the origin of universe. However, one of the hypotheses namely “Nebular Hypothesis” given by Immanuel Kant and revised by Laplace became more popular.. At this instant, matter, energy, space and time were not existent. Video Lecture on YouTube: 7 Theories of origin of universe could easily reach the surface collected! 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